Public exposure from I-131 hospitalized isolated patients in NIMRA Jamshoro Pakistan

Sajjad Ahmed Memon, Naeem Ahmed Laghari, Sadaf Tabasum Qureshi, Asrar Ahmad, Amin Ali Khan, Muhammad Mubashar Hussain


Purpose/ Background: To treat the cancerous tissues the unsealed radioisotopes are being in clinical practice since 7 decades. From these unsealed sources, I-131 is the choice of treatment for the treating thyroid cancers. Orally administered I-131 patients are to be kept isolated in hospital for some period until captured activity in the body reaches to national and international limits for the avoidance of unacceptably high radiation exposures to patients' family members and the general public to keep ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principal in mind. The main rationale of this study was to calculate the exposure/dose of the general public.

Material and Methods: This work presents the exposure rate and dose to the general public in the corridor and the non-radioactive patients admitted in adjacent room from I-131 administered isolated patients treated at NIMRA (Nuclear Institute of Medicine and Radiotherapy) Jamshoro Pakistan. In this study exposure from 23 thyroid cancer patients treated with different activities of I-131 (50 to 200 mCi) from January 2011 to December 2012 were included.

Results: The average exposure rate in the corridor was about 5.17 µSv/hr (2.14 µSv/hr to 8.15 µSv/hr) and the cumulative dose to nonradioactive patients residing in an adjacent room was 0.647 mSv (0.192 mSv to 1.664 mSv).

Conclusion: This study concludes that the exposure rate to the general public especially the admitted non-radioactive patient in the adjacent room is almost within the limits of 1 mSv as specified in national and international standards.


Cite this article as: Memon SA, Laghari NA, Qureshi ST, Ahmad A, Khan AA, Hussain MM. Public exposure from I-131 hospitalized isolated patients in NIMRA Jamshoro Pakistan. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(2):020214. DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0202.14


Unsealed Source; Isolation Room; ALARA; Radioiodine; Exposure Rate

Full Text:



Hamizah NMZ, Juliana MR, Waidi AI, et al. Surface Contamination in Skin and Room during Hospitalization of Thyroid Cancer Patient Receiving Radioiodine Ablation. JDMS 2012; 2:27-33.

Thompson MA. Radiation safety precautions in the management of the hospitalized (131)I therapy patient. J Nucl Med Technol 2001; 29:61-6..

Muhammad W, Faaruq S, Hussain A, et al. Quantitative analysis of the factors responsible for over or under dose of 131 I therapy patients of hyperthyroidism. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2008; 128:90-7.

Meier DA, Brill DR, Becker DV, et, al. Procedure guideline for therapy of thyroid disease with (131)iodine. J Nucl Med 2002; 43:856-61.

Thomas SR. Options for radionuclide therapy: from fixed activity to patient-specific treatment planning. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2002; 17:71-82.

Chow SM. Side effects of high-dose radioactive iodine for ablation or treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. J Hk Coll Radiol 2005; 8:127-35.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Therapeutic nuclear medicine General overview IAEA web page on radiological protection of patient. RPOP /RPoP/ Content/ Information For/Health Professionals/3_NuclearMedicine/Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine/Therapeutic nuclear medicine general overview.html

European Commission. Radiation Protection 97. Radiation protection following Iodine131 therapy (Exposure due to outpatient or discharged inpatients). Directorate General of Environmental Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection Luxembourg, Brussels 1998.

Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA). Regulations on radiation protection (PAK/904) 2004.

Venencia CD, Germanier AG, Bustos SR, et al. Hospital discharge of patients with thyroid carcinoma treated with 131I. J Nucl Med 2002; 43:61-5.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Safety standards series no. RSG1.7: Application of the concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance. Vienna, Austria. 2004.

International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). ICRP Publication 103: The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Editor J. Valentin, Elesevier Oxford, UK. March 2007.

Willegaignon J, Guimaraes MI, Sapienza MT, et al. A new proposal for monitoring patients in nuclear medicine. Health Phys 2006; 91:624-9.

Grigsby PW, Siegel BA, Baker S, Eichling JO. Radiation exposure from outpatient radioactive iodine (131I) therapy for thyroid carcinoma. JAMA 2000; 283:2272-4.

Driver I, Packer S. Radioactive waste discharge quantities for patients undergoing radioactive iodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma. Nucl Med Commun 2001; 22:1129-32.

Al-Haj AN, Lagarde CS, Lobriguito AM. Patient parameters and other radiation safety issues in 131I therapy for thyroid cancer treatment. Health Phys 2007; 93:656-66.

Willegaignon J, Sapienza M, Ono C et al. Outpatient radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer: a safe nuclear medicine procedure. Clin Nucl Med 2011; 36:440-5.

Sabih D. Treatment of thyrotoxicosis with radioactive iodine. Recommendations of the consensus group on nuclear medicine protocols (Pakistan). World J Nucl Med 2006; 5:21-47.

Recommendation for the discharge of patients undergoing treatment with radioactive substances. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPNSA) Radiation protection series no. 4, 2002.

US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive materials (NUREG1492). 1997.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Nuclear medicine in thyroid cancer management: a practical approach, IAEA-TECDOC-1608. Vienna, Austria. 2009.

Pacilio M, Bianciardi L, Panichelli V, et al. Management of 131I therapy for thyroid cancer: cumulative dose from in-patients, discharge planning and personnel requirements. Nucl Med Commun 2005; 26:623-31.

Tavakoli MB. Radioactive discharge from patients with thyroid cancer under 131I treatment and its safe disposal to the public sewer system. Contemp Oncol 2005; 9:38-41.

Parthasarathy KL, Crawford ES. Treatment of thyroid carcinoma: emphasis on highdose 131I outpatient therapy. J Nucl Med Technol 2002; 30:165-71.

Tuntawiroon M, Sritongkul N, Pusuwan P, et al. Radiation exposure from liquid discharges from 131I therapy rooms into the piping system of a hospital building. In vivo therapeutics: World J Nucl Med 2008; 7:122-5.

Memon SA, Laghari NA, Qureshi ST, et al. Exposure rate patterns in 131I therapy inpatients at NIMRA Jamshoro: an 08year study. PJNM 2013; 3:29-36.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Safety reports series no. 63: Release of patients after radionuclide therapy. Vienna, Austria. 2009.

AlMaskery I, Bererhi H. Radiation exposure levels in family members of Omani patients with thyrotoxicosis treated with radioiodine (131I) as outpatients. SQU Med 2009; 9:148-52.

Rutar FJ, Augustine SC, Colcher D, et al. Outpatient treatment with (131I)-anti-B1 antibody: Radiation exposure to family members. J Nucl Med 2001; 42:907-15.

Tonnonchiang S, Sritongkul N, Chaudakshetrin P, Tuntawirron M. Radiation exposure to relatives of patients treated with iodine-131 for thyroid cancer at Siriraj hospital. Available in PDF format at: www.Tmps.Or.Th/Meeting2012/Fullpaper/Siriporn.Pdf.

Marriott CJ, Webber CE, Gulenchyn KY. Radiation exposure for 'caregivers' during high-dose outpatient radioiodine therapy. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2007; 123:62-7.

Sapienza MT, Willegaignon J, Ono CR, et al. Radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer: radiologic impact of out-patient treatment with 100 to 150 mCi Iodine-131 activities. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 2009; 53:318-25.

Reiners C, Lasmann M. Radioiodine (131I) treatment of hyperthyroidism: radiation protection and quality assurance. Eur J Nucl Med 1999; 26:683-5.

Cappelen T, Unhjem JF, Amundsen AL, et al. Radiation exposure to family members of patients with thyrotoxicosis treated with iodine-131. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2006; 33:81-6.

Sulaiman BT, Clarke SE. Radiation doses to patient's relatives following radioiodine therapy. Med J Malaysia 1996; 51:131-3.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.


International Journal of Cancer Therapy and Oncology (ISSN 2330-4049)

© International Journal of Cancer Therapy and Oncology (IJCTO)

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.


Number of visits since October, 2013